IV: POLITICAL HISTORY OF ISLAM
IV-100 THE RIGHTLY-GUIDED CALIPHS (AL-KHULAFAH
1.1 The meaning of caliph(khalifah).
1.2 The significance of the caliphate -politico-religious office.
1.3 The principles of Islamic polity.
1.4 Caliphate and kingship.
- Abu Bakr
2.2 Early life; his titles; his physical appearance.
2.3 Conversion to Islam; his propagation of Islam.
2.4 His devotion to the Prophet; gives his daughter in marriage;hijrahwith the Prophet.
2.5 Abu Bakr's sacrifices at Madinah; his participation in various battles.
2.6 Asimamduring the Prophet'slastillness.
2.7 The Prophet's death and his election; inaugural address.
2.8 Usamah's departure toSyria. his operations and the result.
2.9 The apostates, the siege of Madinah and its defeat.
2.10 The reconquest of Arabia; Khalid's operations against Talha, reclamation of the Bani Tayyi, the Battle of Buzakhah, Bani Tamin; the trial of Khalid; Khalid'soperations against Musaylamah; Sajah, the Battle of Yamamah.
2.11Bahrain,Omanand Mahrah, Yaman and Hadramaut.
2.12 The frontier expeditions.
2.13Iraq,Syria; Khalid, Muthanna.
2.14 Abu Bakr's illness, choice of a Successor, testament.
2.15 His death.
- 16 His family, his home and his habits; his love of theProphet.
2.17 Somehadithsconcerning Abu Bakr.
3.2 Early life, Grandfather, father; 'Umar's birth. 'Umar's training and achievements before Islam.
3.3 Convension of Islam.
3.4Hijrahand his life with the Prophet.
3.5 His role in Abu Bakr's election and during his caliphate.
3.6 'Umar's caliphate.
3.7 The conquest ofIraqandSyria; the Battles of Buwaib, Qadisiyyah, Yermuk;Jerusalemand 'Umar's entry into the city.
3.8 The deposition of Khalid.
3.9 The conquest ofthe Iranian provinces.
3.10 The assassination of 'Umar.
3.11 A review of the conquests.
3.12 'Umar's policies: toward thedhimmis;toward the governors; toward the people; hisijtihad.
3.14 'Umar's personal habits, characteristics and family life.
3.15Hadithsconcerning the merits of 'Umar.
4.2 Early life.
4.3 Conversion to Islam. Marriage to Ruqayyah. Persecution andhijrahtoAbyssinia. Return to Makkah andhijrahto Madinah.
4.4 Life with the Prophet. Generosity; buying of a well;buying of land near the Prophet's mosque; Badr, Uhud; Ruqayyah's death and marriage to Umm Kulthum. Chief Officer of the Prophet is Madinah. Ba'it Radwan; equipping the Tabuk expedition.
4.5 His role during Abu Bakr's and 'Umar’s caliphates.
4.6 His election tokhilafat.
4.7 'Uthman'skhilafat.Conquests:Armenia, Caucasus,Anatolia,Afghanistan,North Africa,Cyprus, Central Asia,Nubia.
4.8 Expansion of the Prophet's mosque; copying of the Qur'an and its distribution.
4.9 Civil disturbances; their causes; Abdullah ibn Saba; the rebels' demands,
4.11 'Uthman’s martyrdom.
4.12 A review of the events.
4.13 'Uthman’s character and qualities.
4.14Hadithsconcerning the merits of 'Othman.
5.2 Early life. His embracing Islam; life in the Prophet's household.
5.3Hijrahand life in Madinah. Participation in battles.
5.4 Role during thekhilafatsof Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman.
5.5 Election tokhilafat.Controversies; battles, Jamal and Siffin; arbitration;kharijiyyah; martyrdom.
5.6 A review of the events.
5.7 'Ali' s administration; his justice.
5.8 His other accomplishments; character and qualities.
5.9Hadithsconcerning the merits of 'Ali.
- A Review of This Period and Its Importance for Muslims
6.1The rapid expansion of Islam.
6.5 Social structure.
6.6 The ideal Islamic state.
- Amir M'uawiyah
1.1 His personality; political acumen and statesmanship; his winning over of his enemies(hilm);his assistants; his bold campaigns.
1.2 Early life; Islam after the conquest of Makkah; Prophet's scribe.
1.3 His role during Abu Bakr's, 'Umar's and 'Uthman's khilafats.
1.4 'Ali's election. 'Ali's decision to depose M'uawiyah; M'uawiyah's insistence on retaliation of the murder of 'Othman; Siffin; arbitration.
1.5 'Ali's assassination; Hasan's abdication. M'uawiyah consolidates his rule.
1.6 Conquests:Balkh; Hirat; Khurasan; Mukran;Kabul; Ghazni,Bukhara; Tirmidh.
1.7 Attacks on the Byzantines; M'uawiyah's navy, conquestofCyprusandRhodes. Attack onConstantinople(Ibn 'Abbas, Husain and Abu Ayyub involved).
1.8 'Uqbah bin Naf'i's conquests inNorth Africa.
1.9Bay 'ahfor Yazid;wasiyyahto Yazid; concerning Husain. Death.
1.10 M 'uawiayh' s administration: army and navy; postal service; agriculture; water management; redress of grievances; injustice; religious freedom and tolerance; propagation of Islam; construction ofmasjids;translation of medical books.
1.11 M'uawiyah's character and qualities.
2.1 Husain's character and qualities; his relations with M'uawiyah.
2.2 Husain leaves Madinah for Makkah after Yazid's accession.
2.3 The messages from Kufah; advoce by well-wishers; Muslim bin' Aqil sent to Kufah; betrayal by Kufans.
2.4 Husain leaves for Kufah; he is surrounded by Hurr; his attitude.
2.5 Husain's martyrdom. Effects of his martyrdom.
2.6 'Abdullah ibn Zubair's stand andkhilafat.
- Banu Umayyah from 680 to 750
3.1 YazifJ: (680-683).
3.2 Marwan ibn al-Hakam (683-685).
3.3 'Abdul Malik (685- 705). Al-Hajjaj ibn Usuf and' Abdullah ibn Zubair. Al-Hajjaj reduces Arabia andIraq. Muhammad ibn Qasim's conquest of Sind; conquest ofCentral Asia; Byzantines and Berbers. Arabicizing of the administration. Partisans of `Ali and Khwarij. 'Abdul Malik's achievements.
3.4 Al-Walid (705-715). Conquest ofSpain. Tariq ibn Ziyad, Musa bin Nusair, and Muhammad ibn Qasim.
3.5 Sulayman (715-717). Attempt to conquerConstantinople.
3.6 'Umar bin`Abdul-' Aziz (818-720). Return to Islamic rule. 'Umar's reforms. 'Umar's character and qualities.
3.7 Yazid II ( 720-724) and Hisham (724-743). TheBattleofTours(732). Uprisings ofShi'an 'AIiand the ` Abbasiyyah.
3.8 The end of the Umayyahs. The revenge by Saffah.
3.9 A review of the Umayyahs. Administration; military organization; conquests; the people -Arabs, new Muslims,dhimmisand slaves; social life; intellectual activities;kalam,poetry, education and science, architecture; trade and commerce; control of the Mediterranean.
- The Early 'Abbasiyyah (750-849)
1.1 ' Abbasiyyah heritage. The Muslim world and civilizationin 750.
1.2 Al-Saffah (750-754) and al-Mansur (754-775). The neworder; suppression of uprisings. Wars with the Byzantines. Foundation ofBaghdad(762). Barmakis.
1.3 Al-Mahdi (775-785). The rise of Barmakis. Patronage of the arts. Al-Hadi (785-786).
1.4 Harun al-Rashid(786-809).Jihadagainst the Byzantines. Style of life inBaghdad. Love of learning. Uprisings in al-Maghrib and Samarqand. Harun's character andqualities.
1.5 Al-Amin (809-813). Civil war.
1.6 Al-Mamun (813-833). Trouble inIraq.Egypt. Conquest in theMediterranean.Bait al-Hikmah. M'utazilahcontroversies. Imam Ahmad Hanbal.
1.7 Al-Mut'asim (822-842). Turkish bodyguard.Samarra, the new capital. Wars with the Byzantines. Afshin' s revolt.
1.8 Al- Wathiq (842-849). Correcting the mistakes of his predecessors.
1.9 A review of early' Abbasiyyah. Administration: vizier; revenues; the army; postal service) provinces;qadaat.Social life. Sciences and arts; medicine, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, alchemy, geography, history,al-Hadith, Fiqh.Sea trade, trade withEurope. Industry. Elementary and higher education.
- Later 'Abbasiyyah(849-1258)
2.1 The loss of power; the slow decline.
2.2 The review of events from al-Mutawakkil to the fall ofBaghdad(857-1258). Breaking up of thekhilafat.Qaramitahs, Isma'ilis, the Sufis. Autonomous kingdoms; Tahiris; Saffaris; Samanis; Ghaznavis, Mahmud Ghaznavi; Buwayhis, 'Adadul Daulah; the Seljuqis, Tughral, Alp Arsalan, Malik Shah, Nizam al-Mulk, the decline of the Seljuqis. Genghis Khan, Hulagu;Baghdadfalls (1258).
IV-202NORTH AFRICA ANDSPAIN
1.1 Conquests westward from'Umar's time to BanuUmayyah's time.
1.2 Conditions after the conquest.
- Umayyah Dynasty (756-1031)
2.1 'Abdul Rahman al-Dakhil. Consolidation of territories. Beginning of Islamic culture. Treatment ofdhimmis.Spread of Islam.
2.2 Al-Hakam (796-882) and' Abdul Rahman II (822-852).
The influence of Muslim culture; the Christian fanatics.
2.3 Muhammad I to Abdullah (852-912).
2.4 'Abdul Rahman III (912-961). Fatimis ofTunis. Wars with Christians. Al-Nasir. Al-Zahra. His administration.
2.5 Al-Hakam II (961-976). Peace and prosperity. The library of Qurtuba.
2.6 A brief survey of the period from 976-1492. Hisham II, Hajib al-Mansur; the Hammadis; the petty kingdoms; al-M'utamid (1068-1091); al-Maghrib and Idrisis; Aghlabis, Isma'ilis; Murabits of Morocco; Yusuf ibn Tashfin; Le Cid; al-Muwahhidin, 'Abdul Mumin, al-Mansur; Nasiris; Abu' Abdullah.
2.7 Muslim culture inSpain. The philosophers: Ibn Bajjah, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Maimun. The Sufis: Ibn 'Arabi. Literature: Ibn 'Abd Rabbihi, Ibn Hazm. History: Ibn Khaldun. Travels: Ibn Battutah, Ibn Jubair. Translation bureau inToledo. The sciences: al-Majriti, al-Zarqali, Ibn al-Bay tar. Medicine and surgery: al-Zahrawi, Ibn Zuhr. Industry;" Education.
2.8 Other events. Conquest ofSicily. Muslim kingdoms ofSicily. Muslim culture inSicily. Tulunis ofNorth Africa; Ikhshidis, Kafur. The Fatimis ofEgypt. 'Ubaidullah's and al-Qaim's conquests in theMediterranean. Jawhar and the four.dation of al-Qahirah, Nizar al-'Aziz. The
fall of the Fatimis. Al-Hakim's excesses in religion and government, the Durzis. Al-Tahir; al-Basasiri's capture ofBaghdad. Arts and sciences under the Fatimis, 'Ali ibn Yunus, Ibn al-Haytham; architecture and crafts.
IV-203THE CRUSADES AND THEMUSLIMKINGDOMS
- Origin of the Crusades.
Early attempts by Christians; paper propaganda. First Crusade (1096-1099). The Christian kingdoms. Impact of Islam on the Crusaders.
- Zangis and Nuris (1127-1162).
The Second Crusade (1147-1149). Nuruddin, Shirkuh; Salahuddin Ayyubi (1169-1193). Liberation ofJerusalem. The Third Crusade (1189-1192). Fall of 'Akkah. Peace settlement. Salahuddin's character and qualities. Ayyubis.
- 3. Fourth (1202-1204) and Fifth (1218-1221) Crusades.
The sack ofConstantinople. Al-Kamil. The Sixth to the Ninth Crusades (1228-1274). Al-Salih, Turan Shah.
- The Bahri Mamlukes (1250-1382).
Al-Zahir Baybars Ruknuddin's victory over the Mongols. Campaign against Christian kingdoms. Restoration of 'Abbasikhilafat.Character of Baybars. Qalawun and his achievements.
Burji Mamlukes (1382-1517). Timur. Capture ofCyprus.
- Culture, Ibn Taimiyyah; Ibn Khaldun; Abdul Fida; al-Maqrizi. Science and education. Industry. Trade. Social and political structure.
IV-204THE 'UTHMANIYAH (OTTOMANS)
- Anatoliaduring the Period of the Seljuqis
1.1 Turkish migrations andghazwahsinAnatolia(1018-1071). The foundation of Seljuqi state inAnatolia. Kay-Qubad (1220-1237).
1.2 The Mongol invasion and the destruction of Seljuqi state.
1.3 The Seljuqi administration; the Islamization process; the economy, trade, and foreign relations.
1.4 The formation of principalities(Beyliks).The spirit ofghazwahamong the Turkish tribes.
- The Early 'Uthmaniyah
2.1 The origin of the 'Uthmaniyah tribe.
2.2 Osman ('Uthman) (1290-1326). His conquests; character and achievements.
2.3 Orkhan (1326-1359). Conquest of Brusa and Izmit.Building activity; educational activity. TheqanunandShari'ah.His administration. Conquest of Gallipoli.
2.4 Murad I (1359-1389). European conquests. Crusades. Conquests in the Balkans. Fight with the combined forces of Balkans and Murad's martyrdom. Character and achievements of Murad.
2.5 Bayazid (1389-1402). Conquests inAsia Minor. Attempts atConstantinople. Timur crushes Bayazid. Fratricidal wars.
2.6 Muhammad I (Mehmet I) (1402-1421) and Murad II(1421-1451). Re-establishment of unity and resumption of wars inEurope.
- The 'Uthmaniyah (Ottoman)Empire
3.1 Muhammad II (Mehmet Fatih), the Conqueror (1451-1481). Conquest ofConstantinople(1453). Expansion in Europe andBlack Sea. Reconstruction ofConstantinople. Muhammad Fatih's administration; finances; land reform; trade.
3.2 Bayazid II (1481-1512), Selim I (1512-1520), and Sulayman the Magnificent (1520-1566). Wars withVenice,Persia,Egypt,Hungary; the Seige of Vienna; alliance withFrance; wars in theMediterranean.
3.3 The state of the Empire at the time of Sulayman. The government; the army; the law; the people; the economy; foreign relations.
3.4 Selim II (1566-1574). TheBattleof Lepanto (1571). The Turkish fleet.
- The Slow Decline
4.1 Causes of Decline.
4.2 Murad III (1574-1595). Nur Banu (mother and Safiyah (wife). Wars withPersiaandAustria.
4.3 Muhammad III, Admad I, Osman II (1595-1623). Treatyof Zsitva-Torok (1606). Revolt inSyriaandAsia Minor. War with Shah'Abbas.
4.4 The later 'Uthmaniyah (1623-1807). Wars with European powers andRussia.
4.5 The state of the Empire at the end of the eighteenth century. Organization of the Empire; law and order; the Sufi orders; the society; Africa;Egypt,Syriaand al-Hijaz.
- The Il Khans(1258-1349)
1.1 The Muslim world in 1260.
1.2 The Il Khans and their administration. Hulagu and his successors. Devastation ofCentral Asia. Ahmad (13811284), Arghun and Gaykhatu (1284-1295), and Ghazan (1295-1304). Ghazan defeats the Mamluk; conquersSyria. Ghazan builds up Islamic institutions.
1.3 Minor kingdoms.
1.4 Timur (1336-1405). Conquests begin. Timur and Bayazid. Timur's character.
1.5 Khalil Sultan (1404-1409), Shah Rukh (1404-1447), Ulugh Beg, Abu Said (1452,1469), Uzun Hasan (1453-1478), and the Turkomen of the White Sheep. Yaqub (1478-1490).
1.6Persiaat the end of the fifteen century. Rumi, Jami;historians; architecture.
- The Sajavis
2.1 The origin.
2.2 Isma'il I (1500-1524). War with Uzbegs. Persecution of the Sunnis. Clash with Selim I. His character.
2.3 Tahmasp (1524-1576). Clash with Sulayman. Humayuntakes refuge with Tahmasp. Treatywiththe 'Uthmaniyah;betrayal of Zayazid (1561). European intrigue.
2.4 'Abbas I (1578-1629). English advisers. Wars with Uzbegs and the 'Uthmaniyah. 'Abbas' administration.
2.5Safi(1629-1642), and the end of the Safavis.
2.6 Safavi administration.
2.7Persiaduring the eighteenth century. Nadir Shah, 'Adil Shah, Abdali, Zand dynasty, Lutf' Ali Khan.
2.8 Persian culture. Society and education; religion; architecture; crafts: carpets and textiles, ceramics, painting, enamel work.
IV-206THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
- Arabs inIndia(712-1051)
1.1 Muhammad ibn al-Qasim (712) and the conquest ofSind.His recall.
1.2 Arab expeditions in westernIndia(712-1051). Their social relations.
- Turkish and Pathan Kings(998-1526)
2.1 Mahmud (998-1030). Mahmud's expeditions in northernIndia. TheBattleof Somnath (1926). His influence onIndia.
2.2 Mahmud's successors (1175-1290). Muhammad Ghauri (1175-1206). Qutbuddin Aybed (1206-1210); Iltutmash (1211-1236); Radiyah (1236-1240); Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246-1266); Balban (1266-1290). The achievements of the "slave dynasty."
2.3 The Khiljis (1290-1320), Jalaluddin and `Alauddin. Early conquests of `Alauddin. Conquest ofDeccan. 'Alauddin' s administration. His successors: Mubarak, Khusro.
2.4 The Tughluqs (1320-1413). Muhammad (1324-1351). His reforms, the shifting of the capital; token currency; Mongol invasion, internal troubles, Firuz and later Tughluqs. Timur's invasion (1398).
2.5 The Sayyids and the Lodhis (1414-1526). Khidr, Khan; Bahlul, Sikander and Ibrahim Lodhi.
2.6Delhisultanate.Administration; revenue; army; treatment of Hindus; learning. Scholars: al- Biruni, al-Baihaqi, 'Ufi. Economic conditions; social conditions.
2.7 The Islamization process; the conversions; theShari'ah,education.
- The Mughals(1526-1857)
3.1Indiaat the time of Babar's invasion.Delhisultanateof Ibrahim Lodhi.KingdomofKashmir(1346-1540). Sharqi kings of Jaunper. Muslim kingdoms of Malwa and Gujrat, Khandesh, and Bangal. The Bahmains ofDeccan. The Islamization ofIndia. The great teachers.
3.2 Zahiruddin Baber (1482-1530). Babar's early life. The first Battle of Paniput (1526). Babar, King ofDelhi. Babar's character and achievements.
3.3 Humayun. His checkered life. His campaign against the Lodhis and Gujrat. His defeat by Sher Khan Suri, and flight toIran. Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545). Sher Shah's achievements. Return of Humayun.
3.4 Akbar (1556-1605). SecondBattleof Paniput. Bayram Khan. Akbar's political policy. Akbar's conquests. Din IIahi.
3.5 Jehangir (1605-1628). Early years. Khusro's revolt; the hostility of Sikhs. Nur Jehan'sinfluence. His wars. Shah Jehan's revolt. Jehangir's character. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi. European interests.
3.6 Shah Jehan (1628-1658). Consolidation of power. ShahJehan as a ruler; as a builder. The four sons of Shah Jehan and their struggle for power.
3.7 Aurangzeb 'Alamgir (1658-1707). Extension of empire. Restoration of Islamic practices. His treatment of nonMuslims. The Sikhs, Rajputs and Maratthas. Rise of Sivaji. The campaign againstDeccan. Aurangzeb's character and achievements.
3.8 The Mughal administration; public services; the army; law and order; revenue system; education and learning; urban life; industry; communication; social life.
3.9 The decline of the Mughals. Aurangzeb's successors. The rise of Maratthas; Ahmad Shah Abdali and the third Battle of Paniput (1761). The Sikhs. The coming of Europeans.
IV-207THE SPREAD OF ISLAM IN OTHER AREAS
- Southeast Asia
1.1 The coming of Islam. Traders,awlia,and native kings.Sumatra's Muslim islands, Ferlec and Pasai (Samudra, 1281 or before). Ibn Battuta's visit (764/1345).
1.2 FromSumatrato Malacca (1400). Sultan Muzaffar Shah (1445-1459). Malaccandependencies adopt Islam.
1.3 Acheh adopts Islam in the mid -fourteenth century. 'Ali Mughayat Shah captures Pasai in 1524 from Portuguese. 'Alauddin (1548-1571) fights Portuguese. Iskander Muda (6108-1637). Women's rule :1641-1699). Islamization of neighboring islands.
1.4Borneo, Sulu and Mindanao Islamized by Arab traders. Spainards' resistance (1570).
1.5 Islam in Java (1400-). Islamic preachers' activity. ShaikhIbn Maulana's efforts in west Java (1526). South and central Java's conversion byawlia.
1.6Moluccas. Maulana Husain's preaching of Islam. Zain al-'Abidin (1486-1500). Islamization of the island.South Borneo's conversion.
1.7 Celebes andEast Borneo. Prince of Tallo embraces Islam (1605). His subjects adopt Islam and become its champions. The conversion of Raja Makota by two preachers, followed by his court and later his people.
1.8 Javanese Islam. Sultan Agung (1613-1646) and mystics.
2.1 Bilad aI-Sudan. Al-Fazari's mention ofGhanain eighth century; al-Bakri (460/1067-1068) supplies more detail. Muslim traders and their superior position.
2.2 Takrur (Senegal) and Malal were Muslim in eleventh century. 'Abdullah bin Yasin's preaching and reform; his conquest of Sijilmasa.
2.3Mali. Mansa Musa's (1312-1337) conquests. Ibn Battuta's description (753-4/1352-3).Mali's relations with pagan tribes, North Africa andMiddle East.
2.4 Songhay empire. The king adopts Islam in the fifth/eleventh century.Mali's and Songhay's relationship. Sonni`Ali, Baru, and Askiya Muhammad. The influence of Muhammad bin `Abd al-Karim al-Maghidi; Takedda, Katsina andKano;jihadagainst' 'mixers." Daud bin Muhammad (956-991/1545-1583).
2.5 Bornu-Kanem. Umayyah influence on Kanemi Islam.Links North Africa, the Middle East, and withMali.
2.6 Hausa. Islam comes fromMaliin early eighth/fourteenthcentury. Fulani 'ulama's influence. Muhammad Rumfa'scentralization of power. 'Umaru bin Kanajeji' s rule(9th/15th). Fulani'ulama'sinfluence in Bagirmi and Waday.
2.7 Moroccan conquest and the rule of the pashas (1591-1660).
2.8 Mande groups. Islam inGambia,Ivory Coast, UpperGuinea andLiberia.
2.9 Reform movements of eighteenth century. Ibrahim Musa's jihad(1725) in Futa Jallon (SenegalandGambia). Futa Toro's reform movements. Sulayman Bal and `Abd al-Qadir.
2.10 'Uthman dan Fodio (b. 1167/1754). 'Uthman'sjama'aand its influence and power. 'Uthman'sjihad.
- East Africa
3.1 Early contacts. The firsthlj'rahtoAbyssinia. Trade along the coast. Coastal settlements of Kilwa. Ibn Battuta's visit (731/1331).
3.2 The Horn ofAfrica. Somali coastal towns, Zayla,Mogadishu. Islamization ofZanzibar. Arab traders and immigrants. Muslim states in the interior, in Shoa (238/896-7). Seven kingdoms as tributaries ofAbyssinia. Description of the Muslim society by Ibn Battuta. Relations with Christians and nomadic tribes.
3.3 Portuguese and 'Uthmaniyah interests in the sixteenth century. Ahmad Gran'sjihad.Harrar as a center of Islamic learning. The Galla kingdoms; Gall influence.
3.4 TheYaopeople south ofSomalia.
IV-208THE MUSLIM WORLD TODAY
- Disintegration of Muslim Power
1.1 The decline of the 'Uthmaniyah Empire. Napoleon inEgypt; risings in Europe;Serbia,Greece, Muhammad `Ali of Egypt and his revolt. Wars withRussia. The Wahhabi movement; Saud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz. The mahdi ofSudan. 'Abd al-'Aziz (1861-1876) and 'Abd al-Hamid
1.2North Africa. French imperialism inAlgeria,TunisiaandMorocco.
1.3 the British in East and West Africa; the Dutch inIndonesia.
1.4Persia: the Qajar dynasty (1795-1825). Muhammad Shah. Nasiruddin. Babism and Baha'ism. Muzaffaruddin.
1.5 The disintegration of the Mughal Empire.Mysore. Shah `Alam and the Marhattas. The British East India Company and its conquests. The revolt of 1857 and British rule. British prejudice against the Muslims of India.
1.6 Attempts at Islamic revival. Jamaluddin Afghani. SirSyyed Ahmad Khan and his defeatist mentality. Apologist writers ofTurkey,EgyptandIndia.
- The Muslim World Today
2.1 The state of the Muslim world after World War I. The Europeans rule supreme.
2.2Turkey. Ataturk and his hatred of Islam. Turkish nationalism, secularism and westernization. 'Ismet Inonu. Restoration of democracy. Islamic movements in the Turkish population. The continuing struggle.
2.3 The Arab countries. Revolt against the 'Uthmaniyah. Betrayal by the British and French. The history of Zionism. Struggle for independence. The Muslim nation states and kingdoms. Islamic movements. Gamal 'abd al-Nasir and his hatred of Islam. The wars withIsrael. The newfound wealth: oil. The Arab world today.
2.4Iran. Ahmad Shah (1909-1929). World War I and the rise of Reza Khan. Reze Shah Pahlavi (1925-41).Iranafter World War II. The Islamic movement and the tyranny of the Shah.
2.5IndiaandPakistan. Struggle for independence. The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. The partition ofIndia. The Islamic movements inIndiaandPakistan. Hindu and Western-influences on the Muslims of the subcontinent. The Indo-Pakistani wars and the
2.6 South-East Asia.IndependenceofIndonesiaandMalaysia. ThePhilippines. Islamic movements.
2.7 The African countries. The emergence of African nationalism. Independence of African countries. Islam inAfricatoday.
2.8 Muslims in the communist world:China,USSRandEastern Europe.
- A Review of the Muslim World
3.1 Independent Muslim countries. Population. Politicalstructures. The economics. Education.
3.2 The rise of Islamic consciousness. Anti- and un-Islamicgovernments. The Islamic movements and their role in awakening the Muslim conscience.
3.3 Islamically-oriented governments and their efforts inrestoring the Islamic way of life.
Who started political Islam? ›
The first scholar to introduce the term Political Islam was Martin Kramer in 1980. Some scholars use the term Islamism for the same set of phenomena, or use the two terms interchangeably.When did political Islam start? ›
The fountainhead of organized political Islam is the Muslim Brotherhood movement, founded in 1928 in Isma'iliyya, Egypt, by Hasan al-Banna with affiliated and semiaffiliated branches through the Muslim world and countries where Muslims live as minorities.What was the political role of Islam? ›
Traditional political concepts in Islam include leadership by elected or selected successors to Muhammad, known as Caliphs in Sunnī Islam and Imams in Shīʿa Islam; the importance of following the Islamic law (sharīʿa); the duty of rulers to seek consultation (shūrā) from their subjects; and the importance of rebuking ...What is Islamic political theory? ›
An Islamic state must in all respects, be founded upon the law laid down by God through His Prophet. The government that runs such a state will be entitled to obedience in its capacity as a political agency set up to enforce the laws of God and only insofar as it acts in that capacity.What is the basis of Islamic ideology? ›
Belief in monotheism is the cornerstone of the Islamic faith. Muslims believe that all the Prophets sent by God to humanity shared the same central message, and that was the message of monotheism. Monotheism is a term used to refer to the belief in the existence of only one diety (God).What is political Islam quizlet? ›
Political Islam. A series of revival movements that establish Islamic values in all spheres of life. Islam. Religion related to Islam and Christianity that started in 610 AD by Muhammad in Mecca, revealed Qur'an.What was the impact of the new Islamic policy? ›
Answer. Answer: Islam gave the message of universal brotherhood, introduced equality in society, rejected caste system and untouchability. In due course, these ideas began to have a conscious or unconscious effect upon the philosophical Hindu mind and fostered the growth of liberal movements under religious reformers.. ...What is the relationship between religion and politics in Islam? ›
Muslims around the world express broad support for democracy and for people of other faiths being able to practice their religion freely. At the same time, many Muslims say religious leaders should influence political matters and see Islamic political parties as just as good or better than other political parties.What is the role of Islam in our society? ›
Islam, founded on individual and collective morality and responsibility, introduced a social revolution in the context in which it was first revealed. Collective morality is expressed in the Qur'an in such terms as equality, justice, fairness, brotherhood, mercy, compassion, solidarity, and freedom of choice.What is the sources of Islamic political thought? ›
It draws on a wide range of sources including writings on religion, law, philosophy and statecraft expressed in treatises, handbooks and political rhetoric.
Why Islam is the final religion? ›
It is simply the last of the divine messages to reach humankind through Prophet Muhammad, who was chosen by the Creator as the bearer of his last and all-encompassing revelation. This explains why there exists a strong link between Islam, Christianity, and Judaism.Which branch of Islam is found primarily in Iran and Iraq called? ›
Shia Muslims are in the majority in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Azerbaijan and, according to some estimates, Yemen.What was the cause of the development of radical Islamic fundamentalism? ›
Specifically, Islamic fundamentalism is the direct result of the displacement of Palestinians after the establishment of the state of Israel. According to Khashan (1997), Islamic fundamentalism results from the decline of Arab nationalism which took its most significant blow after the Arabs lost the 1967 Six-Day War.What do Islamic religious revivalists seek quizlet? ›
What is the goal of "Islamic revivalists" (popularly called "Islamic fundamentalists")? They seek to restore Islam to its central place in individual, community, and national life—the place they feel it held throughout most of the history of Islam.How did Islam begin? ›
The start of Islam is marked in the year 610, following the first revelation to the prophet Muhammad at the age of 40. Muhammad and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian peninsula.How did Islam spread so fast? ›
There are many reasons why Islam spread so quickly. First Mecca was connected to many global trade routes. Another important reason was their military conquered lots of territory. A third factor was the Muslims fair treatment of conquered peoples.How did Islam start timeline? ›
570 - Muhammad is born in the city of Mecca. 610 - The religion of Islam begins when Muhammad receives the first revelations of the Quran. 622 - Muhammad and his followers move to Medina to escape persecution in Mecca. This migration becomes known as the "Hijrah" and marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.How can religion influence politics explain? ›
Ethical values of each religion can play a major role in politics. As a member of any religious community people should express their political needs. The political leaders should regulate the practice of religion so that there is no discrimination and oppression.How can a relationship between religion and politics be established? ›
The relationship between religion and politics can be established by setting up the following constitutional provisions and propagate any religion, or not to follow any. At the same time, the Constitution allows the state to intervene in matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities.What are the similarities between politics and religion? ›
Both religion and politics have one common goal: that is to acquire political power and use it to fulfill their aims.
What is the real meaning of Islam? ›
Definition of Islam
1 : the religious faith of Muslims including belief in Allah as the sole deity and in Muhammad as his prophet. 2a : the civilization erected upon Islamic faith. b : the group of modern nations in which Islam is the dominant religion.
The primary sources of Islamic law are the Holy Book (The Quran), The Sunnah (the traditions or known practices of the Prophet Muhammad ), Ijma' (Consensus), and Qiyas (Analogy).What are the main teachings of Islam? ›
- Profession of Faith (shahada). The belief that "There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God" is central to Islam. ...
- Prayer (salat). ...
- Alms (zakat). ...
- Fasting (sawm). ...
- Pilgrimage (hajj).
Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Islam started in Mecca, in modern-day Saudi Arabia, during the time of the prophet Muhammad's life.How did Islam rise to influence? ›
Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time.What is the history of the religion Islam? ›
Most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Muslims regard Islam as a return to the original faith of the Abrahamic prophets, such as Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, and Jesus, with the submission (Islām) to the will of God.What r the five pillars of Islam? ›
- Profession of Faith (shahada). The belief that "There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God" is central to Islam. ...
- Prayer (salat). Muslims pray facing Mecca five times a day: at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and after dark. ...
- Alms (zakat). ...
- Fasting (sawm). ...
- Pilgrimage (hajj).
Many historians claim that the earliest Muslims came from the Senegambian region of Africa in the early 14th century. It is believed they were Moors, expelled from Spain, who made their way to the Caribbean and possibly to the Gulf of Mexico.Which is oldest religion in world? ›
The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma (Sanskrit: सनातन धर्म, lit.Why Islam is the final religion? ›
It is simply the last of the divine messages to reach humankind through Prophet Muhammad, who was chosen by the Creator as the bearer of his last and all-encompassing revelation. This explains why there exists a strong link between Islam, Christianity, and Judaism.
How old is the world in Islam? ›
Most contemporary Muslims (including scholars) have concluded that the answer to the age of the Earth does not lie in the Qur'an, and they have come to accept the scientifically accepted age of 4.5 billion years.Which country converted to Islam? ›
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'Islam is the oldest religion in the world, founded by Adam, and it was reborn with Abraham and a second time with Muhammad. Between Abraham and Muhammad, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism and Christianity emerged in this order. Then Sikhism emerged after the time of Muhammad. These are the six world religions.